Determination of certain metals inbeebread from different districts in Alexandria and El-Beheira governorates

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Applied Entomology- Faculty of Agriculture- Alexandria University


The present study was carried out to determine the contents of 8 metals (iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead, chromium, arsenic and cadmium) in 12 beebread samples collected from different districts in Alexandria and El-Behaiera governorates throughout the period from March to September 2013. The obtained data showed that each of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) are not detected. In all districts elements could be ranked in the following descending order: Fe > Zn >Mn> Cu >Pb> Cd.
The highest and lowest levels of the studied metals in beebread samples were recorded (as ppm.) in different districts as follows:

For iron the highest was in Etay- El baroud(167.36) and the lowest was in Al-Muntazah (61.06).
For zincthe highest was in Abu-Hommoss(124.93) and the lowest was in El-Tabya (21.95).
For copper the highest was in Kafr-El dawar (21.15) and the lowest was Al-Muntazah (3.12).
For Manganesethe highest was in Edko(44.87) and the lowest was was in Kafr-El dawar (13.02).
For lead the highest was in Kafr El-Dawar (3.57) and the lowest in Etay- El baroud (0.95).
For Cadmium the highest was in Kafr-El Dawar (1.12) the lowest inKhorshid (0.120).

All the recorded values of lead exceeded the Polish permissible slandered(0.4/0.51 ppm), the Finland accepted levels of lead in food (0.3 ppm) and also, the national accepted limits in similar products (1.0 ppm) in Romania exceptthe samples from Abu-Hommoss, Al-Muntazah and al-Delengat which recorded mean values 0.22, 0.23 and 0.25 pp, respectively.also, the mean value of cadmium was 0.51 ppm that exceeded the Polish permissible slandered and Trade Norms (0.05 ppm) and also, the Finland Norms and Kenya Bureau of Standard limits in food products (0.1 ppm).
Significant positive correlations had detected between cadmium and lead on pollen (r = 0.387), cadmium and copper (r = 0.442), lead and copper (r = 0.354) and zinc and iron (r = 0.041). Negative unsignificant correlations had detected between cadmium and manganese (r = – 0.219), cadmium and Iron (r = – 0.150), lead and each of zink, manganese and iron (r = – 0.301, – 0.253 and – 0.150, respectively). In addition, negative insignificant correlations had detected between manganese and copper (r = – 0.316) and between iron and copper (r = – 0.114).
The Daily Intake metals (DIM) of Iron (10 - 60 mg/day),zinc (15 mg/kg/ day), copper (2 – 3 mg/kg/day) and Manganese (0.5 – 5 mg/day) in the recommended human pollen diet (3.66 mg/diet). These values are lower than the permissible limit which recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 1994).


Main Subjects